Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis

Polycentric Circles

Vol. 5 1 No. 1

December 1998

Co-Directors—Elinor Ostrom and Vincent Ostrom

Co-Associate Directors—Michael McGinnis and James Walker

Newsletter Editor—Charla Britt

Newsletter Design—Patty Dalecki

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Negotiating Peace
Comments from a Small Forest Owner
Whole Earth Notes
25th Anniversary Volumes
Books about to be Published
Chinese Translation/Publication Program

Visiting Scholars
IFRI Participants

Tocqueville Endowment
Recent Publications
Web Sites

Contributors to this issue include:

Wal and Julia Duany
Charlotte Hess
Marilyn Hoskins
Michael McGinnis



Wal Duany, Research Associate at the Workshop, spent April to July 1998, meeting with leaders of Uganda, Ethiopia, and Sudan. His primary mission was to participate in a round of Sudan Peace Talks held in Nairobi. The Talks were sponsored by the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD), a regional organization formed in 1992 with the membership of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Jibuti, Kenya, Somali, Sudan, and Uganda. The main parties to the Peace Talks were the Government of Sudan and a faction of the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Movement (SPLA) under the leadership of John Garang. The Talks were held May 4-6, 1998, under the chairmanship of the Honorable Dr. Bonaya Godana, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kenya, with representatives from Ethiopia, Eritrea, Jibuti, Kenya, and Uganda participating as official mediators. Individuals and "friends of IGAD" also mediated. Wal was invited to be a resource person and mediator. The agenda of the Nairobi Peace Talks included (1) the right to self-determination for the people of the southern Sudan, (2) the relationship between state and religion in the Sudan, and (3) emergency relief needs in southern Sudan.

Wal believes that resolution of the long-standing conflict in the Sudan hinges on the third-party mediation of IGAD and regional and international bodies, such as the Organization of African Unity and the United Nations. A major Sudan peace conference will now be held in Nairobi in early 1999. The groundwork for a workable outcome has been well-laid during mediated talks, such as the one held in Nairobi. A negotiated settlement is still the best hope for achieving peace in the Sudan.




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The South Sudanese

In 1993 Julia Duany returned to southern Sudan after an absence of nearly ten years. She was appalled to see that the war of liberation had become a literal hell-on-earth for local people, with no end in sight. She met that same year in Nairobi with each of the leaders of the southern rebel factions. They, in turn, invited Wal Duany to help arrange a meeting between John Garang and Reik Machar in Washington, D.C. This was the beginning of Julia and Wal’s active nonpartisan participation in the Sudan peace process. In 1994 they founded the South Sudanese Friends International (SSFI), a nonprofit organization dedicated to finding long-term solutions to problems in the Sudan. Working to move the peace process forward is an important part of SSFI’s nonpartisan mission. Julia and Wal do this work at their own expense. Generous contributions from many churches and individuals have made their efforts possible. They are deeply grateful.

"Ma’am, we don’t do that sort of thing."
Comments from a Small Forest Owner

by Marilyn Hoskins

I am the owner of a 5-acre secondary forest where I go to "center" my life now that I am back in the States. Since I have been involved with forest communities for a number of years, I decided to try my hand at forest farming. Most of my experience is with tropical areas and I needed some information. So, I went to the state forester to ask advice for forest farming–raising ginger, pepper bushes, hazelnuts, mushrooms, herbs, etc. He responded, "Ma’am, we don’t do that sort of thing. We do timber." I commented that my land was not good for timber, and that cutting the bigger trees was not my goal. After some discussion I said I did not wish to be rude but, perhaps, this singular focus was behind the times as people used many outputs of the forest. He suggested I talk to someone in agriculture extension. Needless to say, when I approached the ag. extensionist he answered that I would need to cut the trees and plant a crop or garden before he would help. I felt like many of my clients in projects whose needs and concerns were outside the range of options the agricultural or forestry institutions offered. How can the social sciences help make forestry more relevant to the clients?v5n1_3.gif (42347 bytes)

When I first joined the forestry department at FAO (September 1984), I was asked by the forester in forest assessment to help him integrate the social sciences into the assessment. I was excited. Having worked in the past with disappointing attempts to make this link, I thought I had at last found a place where this could be done. WRONG!!! He had found four physical factors (slope, soil, rainfall, and temperature) through which he thought he could trace as well as predict the development of biomass. He wanted three or four social indicators to go with these. At first I thought how simple and concrete the physical was, until I thought of the many goals besides biomass, and saw his question was extremely limited. But I also realized that the social sciences had a way to go before they could find information that foresters would count as relevant, and that could help local people benefit from wise forest management.

For 12 years I worked at FAO, collaborating with many local and international NGOs, universities, and other national and international organizations to put the people into forestry. We worked on participatory tools, methods, and approaches, and in the cracks between disciplines. We supported the development of a really integrated data base (IFRI) developed at Indiana University, with inputs from some of the most highly respected people in the field of communal management. We organized an information network of over 9,000 people and a working network of over 300 institutions concerned with the people/tree and forest interface. We have supported hundreds of workshops on relevant topics.

But how much change really resulted from all this work? I am not sure. Using information as one example, I look back at a problem that is still there. The IFRI data base integrates social, institutional, economic, and historical data with the technical at the level of forest formations. It is the information that had been requested by people implementing projects and programs, and making policies and other organizations. In FAO I recently went to the forester who is still in charge of the forest assessment and had asked the question on integrating socio-economic with technical factors. I showed him that we now had a data base that identified the socioeconomic issues important to consider in order to understand changes in forest quantity or quality. The assessment forester said that he had already discovered the crucial social factor–it was population. When I tried to show him population was not an adequate factor to use in isolation, he said other factors would be confusing and that population worked for him. A number of project managers and earth satellite specialists said this information was too micro, overkill, confusing, time demanding, and brought in irrelevant information. I tried to show that the IFRI studies took less time than many approaches they had used. Nevertheless, this extremely useful tool is hardly being used by FAO outside of the Community Forestry Unit. Until we can get our understandings and tools used by those implementing and making the decisions that affect the local people, our knowledge is almost irrelevant.


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by Charlotte Hess

The Fall 1998 issue of the journal Whole Earth contains a special section on the "Globalocal Commons." Several informed summary articles refer to research and publications by Workshop colleagues, including Margaret McKean, Susan Buck, William Blomquist, Bonnie McCay, and others. One page (p. 36) is devoted to Lin Ostrom’s Governing the Commons (1990), which is described as "the most influential book in the last decade on thinking about the commons," and to the CPR design principles. Lin’s Crafting Institutions (1992) is also featured (p. 45), as is information about the International Association for the Study of Common Property and the CPR Digest.

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Hot Off the Press!

In the December issue of Environment, Joanna Burger and Michael Gochfeld revisit Garrett Hardin’s thesis with their article, "The Tragedy of the Commons 30 Years Later." This article cites the work of Bonnie McCay, Fikret Berkes, Lin Ostrom, Mike McGinnis, and Charlotte Hess, among others, as it considers both positive and negative implications of common resources management, and the legal and ecological progress that has been made since the debut of Hardin’s "tragedy" in 1968.

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Planning for the June 9-13, 1999, Workshop on the Workshop (WOW2), is well under way. The 1998-99 academic year is the 25th Anniversary of the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. This milestone will be celebrated with a conference and reunion, bringing together Workshop alumni, associates, staff, and friends. For those of you who missed the first official announcement in Polycentric Circles (June 1998), WOW2 will be organized around four themes:

• Democracy as Transformation: Building Potentials for Self-Governance in Societies at War with Themselves;

• Local Public Economies;

• Development; and

• Social Dilemmas and Coordination Problems.

Registration forms must be received by April 6, 1999. For more information and updates, visit the Workshop’s web site:

If you do not have Internet access, but want to contact us with questions, we can be reached at our conference email address ( in addition to our postal address.

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Seeking Support for WOW2:

If you would like to contribute funds that would help support the travel costs for Workshoppers from overseas to attend the WOW2 conference in June, please send donations to the Tocqueville Endowment in care of Linda Smith at the Workshop address (indicate WOW2 fund).


25th Anniversary Volumes
to be Published

A Message from Mike McGinnis

If you are reading this newsletter you are probably already aware of the contributions of Workshop scholars to your own particular areas of interest, but few of you are likely to be familiar with the entire spectrum of Workshop research. When I became Co-Associate Director a few years ago, I started digging into the reprint files in earnest. My intention was to prepare a volume of readings that would give a comprehensive overview of the Workshop approach to institutional analysis. The first thing I learned was that the Workshop has been a very busy place over the last twenty-five years. I soon realized that a single retrospective volume would be so unwieldy and so expensive that it could never attract a wide readership.

Now, after a lot of work by a lot of people around the Workshop, I am happy to report that the University of Michigan Press has agreed to publish three volumes of previous research by Workshop scholars. Each volume is directed to a different audience, and each covers a limited range of the Workshop research agenda. Polycentric Governance and Development demonstrates that the successful management of common-pool resources by self-governing communities throughout the world has many important lessons for constitutional order and development policy. Polycentricity and Local Public Economies presents papers from the first major empirical project associated with the Workshop, a comparative study of the performance of police agencies in metropolitan areas of the United States. This volume also includes classic statements of the general conceptual framework that has influenced research on the full array of Workshop research topics. In Polycentric Games and Institutions, these general concepts themselves become the focus of analysis. The technical papers in this volume develop formal models and experimental tests of the conditions under which self-governance is likely to be successful. Not surprisingly, the theme of self-governance resonates throughout all three volumes.

Two of the volumes may be in print by the time of the second Workshop on the Workshop (WOW2) in June, and all should be ready by the fall of 1999. Paperback editions will appear at the same time, for those interested in course use. There will even be a Chinese translation of all three books, and perhaps a Romanian translation of a shorter selection of readings.

I would like to thank everyone who contributed to this process, and to apologize to all of you whose work I was unable to include in these volumes. There was so much good work that I wish Michigan could have let us do six or more books! (Actually, writing introductions for three volumes at once was quite enough to keep me busy.) Thus, a few important areas of Workshop research are not covered in these volumes, especially the IFRI and CIPEC research programs. Each book includes a list of suggested further readings for those who want to dig further into this rich vein of research. I hope at least a few readers of these overview volumes will have their interest piqued enough to come to Bloomington, so they too can rummage through the reprint files and the extensive collection of books and papers in the Workshop library. I highly recommend the experience.


For those eager Workshoppers who want to get a sneak preview, the introductions and tables of content for each volume can now be unsurfed at the Workshop’s web site:

Books about to be Published


James Alt, Margaret Levi, and Elinor Ostrom are co-editing a book on Competition and Cooperation: Conversations with Nobelists about Economics and Political Science to be published by the Russell Sage Foundation during August of 1999. They asked two eminent political scientists to discuss the contributions to political science of five economists and one political scientist, who had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics. The "conversations" reveal that the experience of dealing with political questions challenges traditional methods of economics, and that these scholars have all, in turn, contributed to a re-thinking of economic theory. Norman Frohlich and Joe Oppenheimer have written one chapter and Norman Schofield a second chapter on the contributions of Kenneth Arrow. Bryan Jones and Robert Goodin have both written chapters on Herbert Simon. Tom Schwartz and Vincent Ostrom focus on the work of James Buchanan. Ron Rogowski and Russell Hardin write about the work of Gary Becker. Barbara Geddes and Robert Keohane discuss the contributions of Douglass North. Kenneth Shepsle and David Laitin comment on Reinhard Selten’s work. The book will be an excellent volume for a graduate seminar on the scope and methods of political science.

The first book summarizing the findings from the International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) research program will be published by the MIT Press during the fall of 1999. Edited by Clark C. Gibson, Margaret McKean, and Elinor Ostrom, Keeping the Forest: Communities, Institutions, and the Governance of Forests will have chapters on "Explaining Deforestation" by the co-editors and "Common Property" by Meg McKean. The book also has chapters on IFRI research in India by Arun Agrawal, in Uganda by Abwoli Y. Banana and William Gombya-Ssembajjwe, and on Nepal by Charles M. Schweik and a second chapter by George Varughese, on Ecuador by C. Dustin Becker and Clark C. Gibson, and on Bolivia by C. Dustin Becker and Rosario Leon. This book should be a very useful volume for those wishing to teach students how institutional analysis can be studied in a systematic manner across multiple countries.

Several other books are in the final stages of publication and will come out during 1999 (see Recent Publications, p. 7).

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Brenda Bushouse defended her dissertation, "The Mixed Economy of Child Care: An Institutional Analysis of Nonprofit, For-profit, and Public Enterprises," in August 1998. This fall she joined as an assistant professor at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, a joint appointment between the Political Science Department and the Center for Public Policy and Administration (CPPA).

Sara Colburn and David Wilson, former Workshop staff-warriors, have relocated from Bloomington to Oakland, California. Sara has taken a position with ICS Press in Oakland, and both of them are pursuing their careers as professional musicians.

Charlie Schweik received his doctorate in August 1998. His dissertation, "The Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Forest Resources and Institutions," applies GIS and remote sensing to studying the effects of changing "institutional landscapes" and other incentive structures on actions of state and national public forest managers in Indiana. Some of this work will be available in the Spring 1999 issue of the Social Science Computer Review in a paper co-authored with Glen Green ( Charlie is currently a CIPEC Post-Doctoral Research Associate and has a visiting faculty appointment at the Center for Public Policy and Administration at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.





Chinese Translation and Publication
Program Launched

The books in the Institutional Analysis and Public Policy Translation Series are due to be published in Chinese in June 1999. Early in 1998, Mao Shoulong, Director of the Policy and Law Section, Institute of Public Administration, Renmin University of China (People’s University), Beijing, visited the Workshop to discuss the translation program that he and Liu Junning, Executive Director, Research Center for Public Policy, Beijing, were planning. The result of this collaboration is a two-book series by Workshop colleagues.

Institutional Analysis and Public Policy Translation Series by Mao Shoulong:

Res Publica Translation Series by Liu Junning:

The books are being published by Shanghai Joint Publishing Corporation. We are looking forward to a future year-long visit by Mao Shoulong to discuss coordinating research about common-pool resource problems in China.


Visiting Scholars

Anna Blomqvist, Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linkoping University, Sweden, is working on a study of institutions developed to ensure the environmental quality of eco-labeled products. Taking the case of organic coffee grown in Central America and consumed in Sweden, she is focusing on the transformation of controlling institutions and the growth of the market for eco-labeled products from the South to the North.

Giangiacomo Bravo, Department of Economic Sociology, University of Brescia, Italy, is a Ph.D. student studying problems of managing irrigation systems and mountain pastures in the Italian alpine region of Valle d’Aosta. He is also looking into issues related to small-scale development and labor markets.

Charla Britt, Graduate Field of Development Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, is a Ph.D. candidate writing her dissertation on the dialogical development of community forestry policy and praxis in Nepal. Her research focuses on forest user networking, social mobilization, and the formation of a national federation representing the interests of forest user groups in Nepal.

Cheibane Coulibaly, Director, Malian Institute for Applied Development Research, University of Mali, has written publications on the development of Africa, using an interdisciplinary approach to integrating and analyzing findings. Building upon previous research, which used French and Bambara sources, he is now studying American political and anthropological theories to inform his next book on subsidiarity in the history of West African countries.

Keith Dougherty, St. Mary’s College of Maryland, St. Mary’s City, MD, is finishing an empirical study of why the American States contributed to continental defense under the Articles of Confederation. He is also starting new projects assessing institutional solutions to public goods problems, and studying the efficiency of unanimity and majority rule in an iterative voting setting.

Neeraj Joshi, Department of Extension Education and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Rampur, Nepal, is undertaking computer analysis and research on institutional opportunities and constraints of irrigation management systems in Nepal, with particular reference to the effects that different modes of assistance have on the performance of farmer-managed irrigation systems.

Fabiola Mota, Institute of Political and Social Science, the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain, is a Ph.D. candidate writing her dissertation on social capital and peripheral nationalism in Spain. Her research focuses on how the social capital of a nationalist community–with differentiated vernacular language, culture and historical traditions–affects the type and nature of self-governing institutions, as well as citizens’ capacity for self-organizing and self-governance.

Nirmal Sengupta, Madras Institute of Development Studies, Gandhinagar, Chennai, India, is working with Swati Sheladia and Lin Ostrom to develop a Stella model for analyzing interactions between humans and ecosystems in relation to irrigation infrastructure.

Edella Schlager, School of Public Administration and Policy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, is working with Bill Blomquist on a comparative institutional analysis of how municipalities and special districts in California, Colorado, and Arizona acquire and manage their portfolios of water and, especially, how surface and groundwater are managed conjunctively. She is also conducting research on the use of private property-rights systems for managing ocean fisheries.

Sujai Shivakumar is writing a book that examines the link between the design of institutional infrastructure and the potential for human development and economic growth. The book points out that the intellectual crisis in development administration is rooted in a limited conception of the state. It argues that since the structure of human action and interaction influences the pattern of social outcomes, developing a grammar appropriate to the art and science of association is required to enhance and sustain the problem-solving capabilities of democratic societies.

Hong Keun Yune, Department of Public Administration, Seoul National Polytechnic University, Seoul, Korea, is writing a textbook looking at the institutional arrangements that enhance cooperative interactions in government-business relations. He is also searching for a persuasive theoretical framework to explain "competitive cooperation" among businesses and government.

IFRI Participants

Erling Berge, Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, spent the entire fall semester at the Workshop and participated in the IFRI course to learn more about the IFRI methodology. He is also writing a grant proposal to conduct IFRI studies on how institutions affect forest ecosystems in Europe.

Alvaro Fernandez, Researcher, Tropical Science Center, Santa Ana, Costa Rica, is a sociologist who has worked on endogenous development programs with local communities and grassroots organizations in Costa Rica. He is presently developing a research proposal for establishing an IFRI collaborating research center in Costa Rica.

Claudio Garibay, Researcher, Program for the Utilization of Natural Resources, Autonomous National University of Mexico, works with programs of forest certification, including the Mexican Civil Council for Sustainable Silviculture, and SmartWood (of the Rainforest Alliance). He is interested in the IFRI methodology because it provides an empirical and theoretical approach to understanding problems of common pool resources, and how indigenous and other community-based groups can build self-governing institutions.

Ingrid Kissling-Näf, Department of Forest Resource Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, is currently managing a sustainability audit assessment of Swiss forest policy, and working on resource economics and forest policy issues. She participated in the IFRI course to examine institutional aspects of resource economics in greater depth, and to develop a framework for institutional forest research in Switzerland.

Leticia Merino, Researcher, National University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, is studying the impact of institutional changes (e.g., NAFTA and globalization) on Mexican State policies and laws, and the ways in which these changes are affecting forest laws and community forestry in different regions of Mexico. She will be using the IFRI methodology as a conceptual tool to carry out this research, and as a basis for a project on forest certification, in conjunction with the Mexican Civil Council for Sustainable Silviculture, an NGO working to promote community forestry.


The Network on Enlargement and New Membership of the European Union (NEMEU) is a European research network that aims to deepen understandings of the process of European integration. The Network intends to contribute to the literature in economics and political science by focusing on the role of institutions in political decision making, comparatively analyzing alternative institutional arrangements concerning EU enlargement, and studying the extent to which enlargement and new entry will induce change.

Those interested in learning more about NEMEU and its series of working papers can contact the Network Coordinator at: NEMEU, University of Twente, Faculty of Public Administration and Public Policy, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands. Email:


Society for Human Ecology (SHE) will be holding its 10th International Conference, "Living with the Land–Interdisciplinary Research for Adaptive Decision-making," May 27-30, 1999, at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. The conference will focus on ways in which interdisciplinary research can contribute to decisions that promote human well-being and ecological sustainability, including issues of human values and motivation, political and economic organization, technological and social change, ecological vulnerability, and environmental management.

For further information contact the organizers at: SHE-X, McGill University, Department of Geography, 805 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Canada, H3A 2K6. Email:


Tocqueville Endowment

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POLYCENTRIC CIRCLES is funded by voluntary contributions. An annual donation (tax deductible) of $10.00 from those wishing to contribute to the Newsletter Fund would be most appreciated. Please make checks payable to:

Indiana University Foundation (designate "Workshop Newsletter Fund") and send to the attention of Linda Smith, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, 513 North Park, Bloomington, IN 47408-3895 USA.

Thank you for your support!


Vincent Ostrom, Roundtable, 9/7

Roy Gardner, Department of Economics, IU, "Proportional Cutbacks as an Institution for Promoting International Cooperation: Success and Limitations," 9/14

Edella Schlager, School of Public Administration and Policy, University of Arizona, Tucson, "A Comparative Institutional Analysis of Individual and Collective Property Rights in Coastal Fisheries," 9/21

Keith Dougherty, St. Mary’s College of Maryland, St. Mary’s City, "An Empirical Evaluation of the American Confederation, 1775-1782," 9/28

Ken Bickers, Department of Political Science, IU, "Social Welfare Provision in American Communities: The Role of Nonprofit Organizations," 10/5

Marissa Myers, Department of Political Science, IU, "Calling the Shots: Great Powers, the Secretary-General, Troop Contributors and the Political Control of UN Peacekeeping," 10/12

Ernst Fehr, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zürich, Switzerland, "A Theory of Fairness, Competition, and Cooperation," 10/19

Peter J. Deadman, Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, "Simulating Common Pool Resource Management Experiments with Adaptive Agents Employing Alternate Communication Routines," 10/26

Sujai Shivakumar, Department of Economics, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, "Institutional Problem-Solving and the Constitution of Development," 11/2

Alex Thompson, Department of Political Science, University of Chicago, IL, "Enforcement in the Shadow of International Institutions: Canada and the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization," 11/9

David Robb, Department of Political Science & School of Public and Environmental Affairs, IU, "Meta-Theory Framework: Explaining Urban Development by Sorting the Theory," 11/16

Charles Noussair, Department of Economics, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, "Some Results on Price Bubbles and Crashes in Experimental Asset Markets," 11/30

Rachel Croson, Department of Operations and Information Management, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, "Theories of Altruism and Reciprocity: Evidence from Linear Public Goods Games," 12/7

Recent Publications

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Arun Agrawal, with Charla Britt and Keshav Kanel. 1998. Decentralization in Nepal: A Comparative Analysis. Oakland, CA: ICS Press. ISBN 1-55815-507-4 $12.95

Workshoppers Dr. Arun Agrawal (Yale University), Charla Britt (Cornell University), and Dr. Keshav Kanel (Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Nepal) have pooled resources to put together a detailed analysis of the Participatory District Development Program (PDDP) in Nepal. Agrawal and his colleagues comparatively examine the political economy of decentralization efforts in Nepal and elsewhere, relating insights to and from recent PDDP experiences. Deconstructing decentralization as a potentially valuable instrument for democratic participation, the book identifies conditions that are vital to the success of decentralization, and discusses how these may be fostered; it also considers the dilemmas of and impediments to decentralization that have emerged in so many countries. This study has important implications for projects of decentralization in developed and developing countries around the world.

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Erling Berge and Nils Christian Stenseth, eds. 1998. Law and the Governance of Renewable Resources: Studies from Northern Europe and Africa. Oakland, CA: ICS Press. ISBN 1-55815-504-X $29.95

Dr. Erling Berge, professor of Sociology at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, and current visiting scholar at the Workshop, and Dr. Nils Chr. Stenseth, professor of Zoology at the University of Oslo, draw together contributions from accomplished resource scholars from Europe, the United States, and Africa. This compelling collection of theoretical papers and case studies provides rich detail on the law and practice of resource use for effective governance. Elaborating on legal aspects of natural resource management in northern Europe, with cases from Africa for comparison, the book outlines the strong community management traditions and institutions that are prevalent not only in the developing world, but in European countries as well.


Gerrard, Christopher D., and Margaret Polski. 1998. Local Actions, Better Lives: Decentralizing Rural Infrastructure Services. Washington, DC: The Economic Development Institute of the World Bank.

Gerrard, Christopher D., and Margaret Polski. 1998. Seizing the Opportunity, Meeting the Challenge: Institutional Reform for Sustainable Rural Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The Economic Development Institute of the World Bank.

Mastrofski, Stephen D., Roger B. Parks, Albert J. Reiss, Jr., Robert E. Worden, William C. Terrill, Christina DeJong, Meghan Stroshine, and Robin Shepherd. 1998. St. Petersburg Project on Policing Neighborhoods: A Study of the Police and the Community. Report to St. Petersburg Police Department & National Institute of Justice.

Mastrofski, Stephen D., Roger B. Parks, Albert J. Reiss, Jr., and Robert E. Worden. 1998. Community Policing in Action: Lessons From an Observational Study. Research Preview. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Available in video as NCJ 167028.

Mastrofski, Stephen D., Roger B. Parks, Albert J. Reiss, Jr., and Robert E. Worden. 1998. Policing Neighborhoods: A Report from Indianapolis. Research Preview. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

Mastrofski, Stephen D., Roger B. Parks, Albert J. Reiss, Jr., Robert E. Worden, Christina DeJong, Jeffrey B. Snipes, and William Terrill. 1998. Systematic Observation of Public Police: Applying Field Research Methods to Policy Issues. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, Research Report NCJ 172859.

Nurmi, Hannu. 1998. Rational Behaviour and the Design of Institutions: Concepts, Theories and Models. Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1-85898-804-7

Oakerson, Ronald J. Forthcoming 1999. Governing Local Public Economies. Oakland, CA: ICS Press. ISBN: 1-55815-

ICS Press, Latham Square, 1611 Telegraph Ave., Suite 902, Oakland, CA 94612 Toll Free: 800-326-0263 / Fax: 510-238-8440 Website


Agrawal, Arun. 1998. "Not Having One’s Cake, Nor Eating It: Intellectual Property and ‘Indigenous’ Knowledges." (In German). In Die politische Entwicklung der Natur: Neue Konflikte um biologische Ressourcen, ed. M. Flitner, C. Görg, and V. Heins. Opladen: Leske & Budrich.

Kurian, Mathew. 1998. "Issues in Newsprint Sector Reform." Public Enterprise 16(1-2):127-38.

Kurian, Mathew, and Jayesh Bhatia. 1997. "Forest Guards as Partners in Joint Forest Management." Ambio 26(8):553.

McGinnis, Michael. 1998. Review of Todd Sandler, Global Challenges: An Approach to Environmental Political and Economic Problems. American Political Science Review 92 (June): 508-9.

Ostrom, Elinor. Issued 1998. "Esquemas institucionales para el manejo exitoso de recursos comunes." Gaceta Ecológica 45 (Invierno1997): 32-48.

_____. 1998. "Institutional Analysis, Design Principles, and Threats to Sustainable Community Governance and Management of Commons." In Law and the Governance of Renewable Resources, ed. E. Berge and N. C. Stenseth, 27-53. Oakland, CA: ICS Press.

_____. 1998. "The Institutional Analysis and Development Approach." In Designing Institutions for Environmental and Resource Management, ed. E. T. Loehman and D. M. Kilgour, 68-90. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

_____. 1998. "Scales, Polycentricity, and Incentives: Designing Complexity to Govern Complexity." In Protection of Global Biodiversity: Converging Strategies, ed. L. D. Guruswamy and J. A. McNeely, 149-167. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Moore, Michael R., Roy Gardner, and James M. Walker. 1998. "Groundwater Institutions: Models and Experiments." In Designing Institutions for Environmental and Resource Management, E. T. Loehman and D. M. Kilgour, 321-338. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Schlager, Edella, and William Blomquist. 1998. "Heterogeneity and Common Pool Resource Management." In Designing Institutions for Environmental and Resource Management, E. T. Loehman and D. M. Kilgour, 101-112. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Shivakumar, Sujai J. 1998. "Valuation as an Issue in National Accounting and Policy Analysis." In United Nations: Household Accounting—Experiences in the Use of Concepts and their Compilation Volume II. New York: UN Press.

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As we say goodbye to 1998 and enter into a New Year, we at the Workshop would like to extend to everyone warm Season’s Greetings and best wishes for a happy, healthy, and productive New Year. See you at the "Workshop on the Workshop 2," in June 1999 — or wherever and however paths may cross, as they inevitably seem to do!

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Last updated:  February 11, 1999