Polycentric Circles Vol. 2, No. 1
Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis

Volume 2, Number 1 December 1995
Edited by: Ray Eliason
Layout & Design by: Patty Dalecki
Co-Directors: Elinor and Vincent Ostrom


Visiting Scholars 
Staff Changes 
Recent Publications


(Ecowise homepage)

Mark Sproule-Jones' comments on ECOWISE, a multidisciplinary research program on the Hamilton Harbour watershed, Lake Ontario:

 Ecowise is the name we coined for the research team centered at McMaster -University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, that is engaged in large-scale multidisciplinary research on Hamilton Harbour. The project is a great learning experience in environmental issues, and in managing a large group of scholars who are -supposed to collaborate in research and grad training. It is also revealing about university organization and community outreach.

During the '80s, I did extensive work on the differing multiple uses of Hamilton Harbour, an industrial port in an urbanized watershed of one-half million people, on the far western tip of Lake Ontario. I was also involved in community outreach as a stakeholder in an environmental restoration project for the harbor (one of 43 so-called Areas of Concern on the Great Lakes, so designated by the International Joint Commission). Some colleagues in the Biology Department, who were also working on-site, persuaded me to head up an application for this new funding program. We put together a team during 1991-92, completed a Letter of Intent that year and pre-project funding of $13,000 to the Canadian equivalent of the National Science Foundation. We were one of five groups funded in year 1, out of 108 that submitted proposals. We received $2.1 million for three years.

We organized our projects into five groups, which meet three or four times a year largely to allocate and reallocate a budget envelope we negotiated with group leaders in the first few months. The groups are Values and Attitudes (social psychology, sociology, and philosophy projects), Public Policy (economics and political science), Biotic Resources (biology and medical studies on fish populations, bird colonies, turtles, marshes, etc.), and Toxics -(biochem, genetics, hydrology, geomorphology, airborne depositions, heavy metals, etc.). Our common meetings include a weekly brown bag seminar at which one of our group makes a presentation (these are published in-house), a monthly evening seminar (outside speaker), an annual workshop designed to help the community on some issue, and a semiannual newsletter. We have a special Communications group that includes a theatre workshop group, a built-in self-evaluation study, and a media advisory group (to get publicity, etc., including some neat Public Service Announcements we are making with a local TV station . . . catch us on the weather channel sometime!). Participants include 33 faculty, 7 from neighboring universities and government labs, and 26 graduate students/post-docs/technicians/research assistants, representing 17 disciplines across 5 faculties (Social Science, Humanities, Science, Engineering, Medicine).

I have spent a lot of time communicating with elites, stakeholders, and the general public about our research. I wrote the original implementation design for the Remedial Action Program, and it seems to be working. I have ended up as President of the Bay Area Restoration Council, the major oversight body for the Remedial Action Program agencies (who have designated duties under the Plan). It gets quite difficult to remember which hat I am wearing at any time! The management techniques are similar; they emphasize collaboration and mutual accommodation. Like all such strategies, they come at the price of opportunism, intransigence, and side games. I have got scars to show for some of these. . . .

But there are rewarding aspects of linking "town" and "gown." For example, we have 240 grade 6 classrooms growing cattails every winter, which we then take and plant in a local tributary with the aid of 70 adult volunteers. (Two of our projects are doing before/after studies of marsh replanting and carp control techniques.) We have the neatest logo (blue heron in front of an industrial waterfront), which I got the Federal Minister of Environment to push (unsuccessfully) for the back of the new $2 coin. I can let you have a coffee mug with logo, made in China no less, for a mere $5 Cdn. We do TRY to have some fun!

We wind up operations in April 1996 with a final volume of articles designed for the general public. We have sponsored scads of peer-reviewed articles. We have had a big impact on people's careers and added some needed expertise to local environmental cleanup attempts.

Please write or e-mail me if you would like copies of documents we have and are producing (newsletters, annual reports, seminar proceedings, workshop summaries, etc.). My address is Department of Political Science, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M4, Canada; and my email address is: Editor's note: Ecowise's home page address on the Web is:

 Comments by Barbara Allen on a course offered at Carleton University that applies Tocqueville's analysis to the American juvenile system

 The goal in this course is to uncover the coherent political theory in Tocqueville's major work, Democracy in America. We also aim our discussions toward what is incomplete in Tocqueville's theory. Our larger purpose is to think about what makes self-government feasible. We focus on the physical and institutional environment required for self-government, the assumed capabilities of citizens in democracies, and the problems that arise when these conditions are not met. Finally, we see how we might apply this political theory to contemporary problems as "political science." Some believe that juvenile crime, teen pregnancy, and a host of other social problems are the failure of our institutions, all of our institutions, not just government. In the experience of many Americans, the primary problem-solving agent has been the government. They do not know the foundation upon which our institutions were founded and therefore cannot assess their effectiveness.

The primary focus for application of Tocqueville's theory is the American juvenile justice system. Juvenile crime is a problem of increasing proportions, not only in American cities, but also in the rural environment, including our own college community. Tocqueville came to America to study our penitentiary system. He understood the term "penitentiary" less as a word associated with prisons and more as a concept related to "penitence" and the rehabilitation that idea entails. As such, the study of prisons (in this instance juvenile detention and corrections facilities) and the system of justice within which a society seeks democratic relationships reveals how institutions facilitate participation, and sanction transgressions against the community to promote actual self-government. By focusing on Tocqueville's observations of jury trials, and the effect of rule enforcement on self-governing communities, we gain a deeper understanding of his method of institutional and policy analysis, his exploration of American democracy, and his political theory. By engaging in dialogue with "clients" and staff within the juvenile justice system, we learn how to evaluate theory against the first-hand experience of these people.

The research component of the seminar takes us even further in our task of applying political theory to a contemporary social and policy problem. Our research effort involves developing materials to teach what we learn from theory as well as what we learn from interaction with juveniles involved in varying degrees with the justice system. The development of these materials also takes in the role of voluntary associations, jury trial, and extra-legal institutions that aid democratic practices, and the interaction of laws, customs, and mores in processes of self-government.

Following a series of lectures and discussions, the students are divided into work teams to identify and specify the problems and interests surrounding this topic. Through developing and implementing strategies of participation with these diverse citizen-clients, all participants are engaging in public problem-solving through the "art of association." Students will identify the specific content for the proposed teaching module, and work out ways to present the information to two audiences. The first audience will be an inter-disciplinary group comprised of colleagues from education, social sciences as well as teachers from alternative schools and social service providers in this area. Following input from this audience, the student work teams will redraft their materials and make their final presentation to a group of youths whose lives have been involved in the criminal justice system. The acquisition and exercise of self-governing capabilities in addressing the problems of life is a critical focus of discussion.

Those desiring a copy of the syllabus for this course can write Dr. Barbara Allen, Department of Political Science, Willis Hall 408, Carleton College, One N. -College Street, Northfield, MN 55057.

Center for Local Institutional Research 1995-96

 Peter Bogason reports that the Center for Local Institutional Research in Denmark has completed its second year. Some excerpts of the second annual report -follow.

The Center for Local Institutional Research is concerned with citizens' collective choice actions in the community-whether or not this involves the public sector. In particular, the Center is interested in analyzing the consequences of decentralizing public powers to institutions and localities. The Center coordinates research from Roskilde University and four other research institutions.

The main theoretical task for the Center is to take part in developing theories of local collective choice in the western postmodern society of the late 20th century, including new patterns of organization in the public sector and concurrent changes in the market and civil society. Theoretically, the Center aims at developing common aspects of a new institutionalism in the disciplines of sociology, economics, and political science. The fundamental idea is that the consequences of the development are to be analyzed locally, emphasizing the perspectives of local citizens.

The Center started out in the Fall of 1993. The second year of operation 1994-95 has been one of consolidation. The scope of activities has been expanded somewhat; the Center now coordinates research for 17 researchers with differing degrees of involvement.

Under the pseudonym "The Seven Little Dwarfs," a group from the Center won the second prize (about 14,000 US$) in a competition on "Local Democracy Beyond the Year 2000," celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Danish Local Government Reform.

Research Group on Local Institutions based at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Excerpts from Dele Olowu and John Erero's paper entitled "Governance of Nigeria's Villages and Cities through Indigenous Institutions":

 In 1993, the Research Group on Local Institutions based at Obafemi Awolowo University embarked upon a research and training programme using funds provided by the Ford Foundation, West Africa Office, Lagos. The original focus of the research component was to attempt to understand the governance of villages with the hope that this will yield important insights for understanding what we referred to as indigenous administration. We, however, found that similar governance structures such as are found in the rural areas also exist in the urban centres. This led us to incorporate urban centres in the research project.

The overall objective of the research effort is to try to understand how Nigerian villages and cities are actually being governed as distinct from the theoretical and formal expectations. Theoretically and formally, Nigeria is being governed by the central or federal government from its capital at Abuja, the 30 state governments, and the 593 local governments-which are all manned by retired military officers or appointees of the military government. In reality, however, these institutions are not responsible for the public services enjoyed by most citizens in the urban and rural areas of Nigeria.

Finally, on the basis of our findings, our work intends to contribute to the attempt at bringing about a convergence of the traditional/informal/indigenous and modern/formal/state structures of governance, which are at present disconnected in Africa. We believe this is an important agenda in view of the disastrous consequences of the lack of interface between informal and formal structures to date.

The research findings underscore important issues. First, they help us to come to grips with the reality of institutions and institutional analysis rather than the fictional supposition that the state--mandated institutions are the critical institutions on which the life of the mass of the people hang. Indeed, several close observers have often wondered why -African people have managed to survive the economic, political, and ecological crises with which the continent is confronted. An insight into the vigor and activities of the type of institutions covered in this study provides some sort of answer to this query-the real institutions are often overlooked by policy makers and teachers/students of public administration alike.

Second, this research underscores the variety of institutions existing in Nigeria. The distinction is not simply between formal and informal structures or between exotic and indigenous structures. Rather, what exists are substantial overlaps between these various categories. Depending on the history, circumstance, and personalities in each area, one indigenous institution may be relevant or irrelevant. For instance, we discovered through this research that some cities have separate chiefs and chieftaincy institutions for women. These have partially fallen to disuse, yet for the past decade, Nigerian governments have been trying to implement women-focussed programmes without reference to this practice, which is still utilized even in the most modern cities in Nigeria, especially in the governance of markets.

Piotr Chmielewski, in an email -message to Vincent of 11/13/95

Karol Soltan and George Quester from the University of Maryland and Antoni Kaminski and I have undertaken an -International Summer School in Political Science and International Affairs.

This year was a tremendous success and our school has a good chance of being funded for the next three years by Ford and HESP. Over the next couple of years, we want to transform our school into a permanent "going concern," and so, we need a place to settle. I have found a place close to Warsaw (70 miles East) and we are trying to buy it. The building and grounds are great but will require a lot of work and money. All of this is a challenging process but we are persevering. I will write you with more details later. Now I have two permanent jobs, two seminars, and two research programs on the mountain folk. I am also writing on language and institutional analysis. The first small book will be published this December: People and Institutions: The History and Theory of The New -Institutionalism. I am busy, I am glad, I am fine.


John Williams (Department of -Political Science, Indiana University, Woodburn 308, Bloomington) is presently conducting a research project:

The objective of "Electoral Institutions and Public Policy: Distributive Politics and Capital Improvement Projects" is to determine whether electoral institutions influence the way capital improvement projects are distributed. The benefits accruing from government projects are visible and specific, while the costs are diffused throughout the polity. Institutional design may affect the way common resources are employed.

In electoral systems that are based on -single-member representation of electoral districts, representatives have an incentive to send as much of the common resources as they can to their home districts. In at-large electoral systems there would seem to be no incentive for legislators to send political benefits to a particular geographical area. To retain office in an at-large system of representation, a legislator must satisfy an electoral coalition that may be made up of a geographically diverse public.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) will be used to integrate and analyze data from four cities: Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Indianapolis and Milwaukee use single-member districts; Cincinnati and Columbus use at-large representation.

Two different model building approaches will be used. The most important, which uses data from all four cities, evaluates whether models using all variables with no district-specific variables will fit better in at-large cities than in cities with -single-member districts. The second approach specifies district-specific variables to find out whether districts represented by the majority party or powerful council members receive a disproportionate amount of CIP funding.

All urban service delivery research has had to deal with the problem of measuring benefits over spatial distances, and there is never an easy solution to this problem. However, a GIS offers the opportunity to capture the effects of a variety of phenomena more accurately. For example, by calculating actual travel time rather than using straight-line distances, the concept of access can be operationalized more realistically.

In addition to providing a method for efficiently combining census, electoral, and CIP data, a GIS provides a method that allows for richer measurement and manipulation of geographic data at a relatively small cost. The results and techniques developed will be useful to scholars interested in research on neighborhood associations, economic development, policies funded from city operating budgets, and a variety of other areas.

Book Review

 Siedentopf, Larry. 1994. Tocqueville. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 147 pp. This brief biography appearing in the Masters Series of the Oxford University Press is a stimulating account of Tocqueville's intellectual journey through life. Siedentopf presumes, as many of us do, that "Tocqueville attempted something extraordinary-the overturn of the European idea of the state" (p. 41). The chapter on "The Great Debate of the 1820's" demonstrates how Tocqueville's intellectual challenge had its origins in the efforts of French liberals to address basic problems in the reconstitution of French society following the restoration of the Monarchy. "At issue" in an extended series of inquiries, "was nothing less than the idea of the state itself" (p. 87). This was the stimulus for a searching inquiry of American federalism.

Siedentopf's treatment of the portions of Democracy in America published in 1840 demonstrates how Tocqueville was able to use his own understanding of character structures in an aristocratic society to come to an understanding of the character structure and personality in a democratic society grounded in equal liberty. Character structures and the structure of authority relationships become close complements to one another. The chapter on "Religion and Social Structure" addresses the basic character of Western civilization, which emerged from the correspondence between Tocqueville and de Gobineau. Unfortunately, Siedentopf continues to use the idea of the state in his biographical narrative rather than presuming that the idea of self-governance can be used to construct and maintain diverse systems of political associations compatible with the requirements of democratic societies.

-Vincent Ostrom



Elinor Ostrom was elected president of the American Political Science Association at the annual convention in Chicago, August 1995.

Thráinn Eggertsson is now practicing the dismal science at the Hoover Institution, in Stanford, California.

Sue and David Crawford are expecting their first child in late Spring.

Patty and Jacek Dalecki are expecting their second child in late June.

Visiting Scholars

(1995-96 -Academic Year)

 Lars Carlsson [Department of Political Science, University of Lulea, S-971 87 Lulea, Sweden] is senior lecturer from the Division of Political Science, Lulea University, Sweden. He has done research primarily in the field of policy implementation with special emphasis on local economic development. Recently, Lars has been conducting research concerning Common Forests in Sweden. These forests date back to the second part of the last century, as far as their organizational structure is concerned. The Swedish Common Forests are still, however, contributing to the local economy, and they are also quite competitive in the timber market. This tension between the old organizational structure of the commons, their ability to keep up with competition, and the interaction with the modern state is the problem complex which especially interests him. During his year in Bloomington, Lars will be writing papers and articles about these questions. He will also participate in the IFRI training program during the spring semester. Lars Carlsson holds a scholarship from The -Swedish Institute and Lulea University.

Yu-zhuang Deng [Ministry of Personnel PRC, Institute of Public Administration, Hepingli, Beijing, 100045, People's Republic of China] After the publication of Rethinking Institutional Analysis and Development and The Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration in China, some researchers have been giving them special attention. It has therefore become necessary to develop a Chinese program of Institutional Analysis and Public Choice (IAAPC) to further explore and publish such works. An "Introduction to the Workshop and the Theory of the Institutional Analysis" has been prepared for Chinese Administration, which is a national journal. Another national publishing house of Beijing's Xinhua News Agency has arranged for the publication of The Meaning of American Federalism, which is being studied and translated by the Workshop's Chinese colleagues. The next work that is being considered for research and translation is Governing the Commons, which is already influencing Chinese research on CPR problems. Workshoppers will find that more Chinese researchers and students will be drawing on the Workshop's approach to contribute both to Chinese society and human culture.

Lars A. Engberg [Department of Social Sciences, Roskilde University, P.O. Box 260, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark] (8/19/95-2/29/96)

Lars is a research fellow visiting the -Workshop on a Ph.D-stipend for 6 months. Previously, he has researched social and labour market policies in Denmark and The European Community, and the implementation of European policy-programmes in Denmark. Lars has joined the Workshop to benefit from the theoretical discourse concerning the notion of constitutional choice, which he intends to use in an analysis of local government reform in Denmark.

Malgorzata Korzycka-Iwanow [Department of Agricultural Law, -Warsaw University, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26/28, 00-927 Warsaw, Poland] received a Senior Fulbright Grant for the 1995/96 academic year for a research project: Legal and Social Barriers Concerning Biotechnology in Agriculture. My research is a continuation of my habilitation thesis (concerning breeder's rights), although it is much broader. The major aim of the project is to analyze the social and legal constraints that influence the development of biotechnology. U.S. legal scholarship, as well as legislative and court decisions, will be considered in light of their long-standing experience with issues related to biotechnology.

Agricultural biotechnology is obviously concerned with how to improve the scope and efficiency of agricultural production. Therefore it has been necessary to reinterpret the basic legal patenting systems and practices with regard to agricultural needs. In addition, some key issues relating to the concept of intellectual property rights will be discussed.

Social as well as moral criteria pertinent to biotechnology development are of a much different nature than legal ones. This engenders a search for new rules and value definitions within the human development framework that affect the biotechnology area.

Branko Smerdel [Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, Trg Marsala Tita 3, 41000 Zagreb, Croatia] received a Fulbright grant for the 1995/96 academic year for a research project whose working title is: American -Constitutionalism: Lessons for New -Democracies.

I expect the manuscript will become a book in the Croatian language.

The fundamental constitutional concepts of the U.S. Constitution, separation of powers, federalism, judicial review and local government, are still either poorly known or often misunderstood in new democracies. This despite the fact that the American constitutional model exercised great influence in the drafting of new constitutions in Middle and Eastern Europe. In particular, the most recent developments in constitutional governance have not received the attention they deserve. My intention is to analyze recent developments in the constitutional field, drawing from the basic constitutional concepts. My 12-year (so far) conversation with Vincent and others on these issues made the Workshop the logical location for this project.

James Thomson [Associates in Rural Development, Inc., P.O. Box 1397, Burlington, VT] is spending the academic year 1995-96 at the Workshop preparing a book-length manuscript that will re-analyze results of 15 years' consulting on environmental problems in West Africa. The book will highlight institutional aspects of renewable natural resources governance and management in francophone countries of West Africa, particularly Mali. It will also examine closely the French political theory that underlies organization of state efforts in this sector.

A clash results when governments try to centralize governance and management of renewables. This happens because local time and place knowledge of the behavior of particular flora and fauna species in specific environmental niches is so often indispensable to effective stewardship of those resources. Yet French political theory, and West African state-level practice, militate against easy official recognition of local groups that try to govern renewables within what may be best described as de facto special districts for resources management. The state-imposed inability of local communities to restrict access to renewables, regulate their use, and federate with neighboring communities to improve resources management capacity, all pose critical threats to the economic future of West African countries. Thomson's book will try to highlight these issues and -propose options that\x11might be explored in countries committed to improving conditions for local-level renewables governance and management.

Xin Zhang [Institute of Public Administration, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, People's Republic of China] writes:

Before I came here as a visiting scholar, I spent two years at the Department of Management of Hong Kong Polytechnic University doing research on environmental policy and management in China. Now my thesis topic at the Workshop is: "Can Market Reform Save the -Environment: An Empirical Study in China." The Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework will be used to analyze and explain the institutional transitions presently occurring in China and their impact on sustainable economic development. I welcome correspondence from other scholars who are interested in exchanging information and ideas on this topic.

(Spring 1996)

Vishwa Ballabh, Institute of Rural Management, Post Box No. 60, Anand 388 001, Gujarat, India

 Susan Buck, Department of Political Science, 137 Graham Bldg., University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC 27412-5001

 Andre Habisch, Kolkrabenweg 9, 12351 Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany

 Marleen Maarleveld, Department of Communication and Innovation Studies, Wageningen Agricultural University, Holandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands

 Jan Age Riseth, Narvik Institute of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 385, N-8500 Narvik, Norway

 (Short-term Visitors)

Ralf Winckler, Sozialokonomisches Seminar IV, Universitat Hamburg, D-20146 -Hamburg, Von-Melle-Park 5, -Federal Republic of Germany (Sept. 9-Oct. 9, 1995)

Su-Ik Hwang, Department of Political Science, Seoul National University, 56-1 Sin Lim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul -151-742, Korea (Sept. 17-18, 1995) [currently @ the University of Cincinnati until May 1996]

Sam Joseph, ACTIONAID, Camp B-angalore, India (Nov. 5-6, 1995) Anne Reff Pedersen, Roskilde Universitetscenter Institute of Social Science 23.2, Postbox 260, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark (Nov. 12-15, 1995)

Dele Olowu, Department of Public Administration, Obafemi Awolowo -University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria (Nov. 14-15, 1995) [currently holding a temporary position at Public and Human Services Division, Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia]

Judith Weddle, 627 N. Ridgeland Ave., Oak Park, IL 60302 (Dec. 5-6, 1995)

Arun Agrawal, Department of Political Science, 3324 Turlington Hall, P.O. Box 117325, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7325 (Dec. 11-20, 1995) [currently @ Yale University until May 20, 1996]

Iris Bohnet, Institute for Empirical Economic Research, University of Zurich, Blumlisalpstr. 10, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland (Feb. 11-16, 1996)

Bruno Frey, Institute for Empirical Economic Research, University of Zurich, Blumlisalpstr. 10, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland (Feb. 11-16, 1996)

Staff Changes

Laura Watkins has replaced Melissa -Simpson as IFRI Program Secretary/Office Coordinator in Woodburn.

Heather Harris, an honors student in English, joined the Workshop in September as a part-time secretary. She will be leaving us shortly to serve an internship in the Indiana State Senate, but will return in late March.

We are also fortunate enough to have Ellen Thomson (M.L.S., University of Maryland; M.F.A., University of Iowa) working in the Research Library.


(Fall 1995)

 Roundtable Session, Vincent and Elinor Ostrom, Co-Directors, Workshop, Sept. 11

 "Institutional Analysis of Mercury Pollution Cases with an Emphasis on the Amazon: Further Suggestions for Community Organization with Regard to Fish Consumption Advisories," Ana Boischio, Doctoral Student, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Sept. 18

 "Policy Entrepreneurs and Institutional Change: The Case of School Choice," Michael Mintrom, Department of Political Science, Michigan State University, Sept. 25

 "Standardization and the Fight for Market Shares," Ralf Winckler, Department of Economics, University of Hamburg, Oct. 2

 "Voting on Allocation Rules in a Commons without Face-to-Face Communication: Theoretical Issues and Experimental Results," James Walker and Roy Gardner [Dept. of Economics and Workshop], Elinor Ostrom [Dept. of Political Science and Workshop], and Andrew Herr [Doctoral Student, Dept. of Economics and Workshop], Oct. 9

 "Budget Processes and Commitment to Fiscal Discipline," Juergen von Hagen, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy, Indiana University, and Center for Economic Policy Research, UK, and Department of Economics, University of Mannheim, Oct. 16

 "To Keep Away from the Leviathan: The Case of the Swedish Common Forests," Lars Carlsson, Department of Political Science, University of Lulea, Oct. 23

 "The Institutional Analysis and Development Framework: An Application to the Study of Common-Pool Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa," Elinor Ostrom, Department of Political Science and Workshop, Oct. 30

 "Patterns of Self-Governing in the Desert" [Discussion of some of his recent activities in the Sanaag region of Somaliland], Sam Joseph, ACTIONAID, Bangalore, India, Nov. 6, No Paper.

"Four Realms of Collective Action Arranged in a Bilevel Structure: A Reformulation of International Relations Theory," Michael McGinnis, Department of Political Science and Workshop, Nov. 13

 "Devolution and Experimentation: Dealing With Our Ignorance in Reforming Welfare," Lloyd Orr, Department of Economics, Nov. 27, No paper.

"Baring Brothers & Co., Hope & Co., and Russian International Trade and Finance, 18th-20th Centuries," Herbert Kaplan, Department of History, Dec. 4



Joby Jerrells, our Database Administrator, attended the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations conference in Finland, August 6-13. The conference involved more than 2,000 people from 100 countries. Joby gave a presentation on the IFRI database before the agri-forestry group and spent some pleasant time in Paris after the conference before returning to Bloomington.

Charlotte Hess, Workshop Research Librarian, went to Bonn, Germany, to attend "Reinventing the Commons," a workshop sponsored by the Transnational Institute, November 5-6. Charlotte presented her paper: "Untangling the Web: The Internet as a Commons."

Lin Ostrom and Clark Gibson spent most of November on a trip related to the International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) research program. They started in Harare, Zimbabwe, where they were very glad to see Cheryl Danley and hear about her progress on the research and teaching fronts but distressed to learn that an accident had totaled the new truck she had bought to get out into the field.

They visited Gabe Lopez at the Ford Foundation office and Jeremy Jackson, Calvin Nhira, Bruce Campbell, and Marshall Murphree at the Center for Applied Social Science (CASS). There appears to be initial interest in exploring the possibility of establishing a Collaborative Research Center at CASS by the beginning of 1997.

Onward to New Delhi, where they had discussions with Vishwa Ballabh (who will be joining us in Bloomington early in January) and with Jeff Campbell and Ujjwal Pradhan at the New Delhi Office of the Ford Foundation. N. S. Jodha and Lin gave a joint seminar on equity -considerations in community-governed resource management which turned out to stimulate quite a bit of interest.

In Kathmandu, Clark and Lin worked with Rajendra Shrestha and his team in providing a three-day orientation/training program that was attended by 23 participants from the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, the Shivapuri Integrated Watershed Development Project, the King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation, and several staff of FAO in Nepal. A very productive couple of days were spent at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science at Rampur in Chitwan talking over recent research accomplishments with Ganesh Shivakoti, A. K. Shukla, K. N. Pandit, and Keshav Adhikari. Plans were laid for a Conference on "Participation, People, and Sustainable Development: Understanding the Dynamics of Natural Resource Systems" to be held at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal, March 17-20, 1996.

From Kathmandu, Clark and Lin visited the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) located at Bogor in the outskirts of Jakarta in Indonesia. After giving a brief seminar on IFRI, they had the opportunity to meet with a large number of scholars doing work on closely related topics of considerable interest to colleagues at the Workshop. They identified so many possible areas in common that they are sure that they will find ways to continue further collaboration in the future.

Goran Rosenberg of Moderna Tider Forslag and a crew of three were in Bloomington on November 5 to tape an interview with Lin Ostrom on The Commons for presentation on Swedish television on November 19. After returning to Sweden, Rosenberg wrote, referring to 513 N. Park St. as "your wonderful little house in the remarkable human refuge that is called Bloomington."

Lin Ostrom and Tjip Walker attended the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank's curriculum development workshop: "Agricultural Policy and Institutional Reform: What is the State of the Art?," in Washington, D.C., December 6-7. Lin presented "The Institutional Analysis and Development Approach" at the plenary session, and Tjip presented "New Rules for Old: Applying Institutional Analysis to the Liberalization of Agricultural Industries in Africa."

Manfred Holler and Guillermo Owen are circulating a call for papers for a book they are editing: Power Indices and Coalition Formation. Contributions are sought on (but not limited to):

Power indices with a priori unions
Implementation of power measures
Probabilistic concepts of power indices
Private good indices versus public good indices (the forgoing list is abridged due to lack of space)

Manuscripts should be formatted in the style of the International Journal of Game Theory and must be submitted in quadruplicate by April 15, 1996. For more information contact:

Manfred J. Holler
Institute of Economics. AWM
University of Hamburg
D-20146 Hamburg,
Guillermo Owen
Department of the Navy
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, CA 93943-5100 U.S.A.


Papers of Special Interest:

 "Making Peace: A Report on Grassroots Peace Efforts By Women in South Sudan," by Julia Aker Duany, describes "how women are mobilizing at the grassroots level as peace advocates, peace makers, and peace monitors. I also describe the peace education program which I designed to support and expand these efforts" (taken from abstract).

"Four Realms of Collective Action Arranged in a Bilevel Structure: A Reformulation of International Relations Theory," by Michael McGinnis, articulates international relations theory as a two-level (domestic and international) collective-action problem. The four realms of the title are economic, cultural, political, and military. Each of these social realms are represented by agents who act at the domestic and international levels.


Gardner, Roy. 1995. Games for Business and Economics. New York: Wiley.*

Holler, Manfred J., and Jacques-Francois Thisse, eds. 1995. The Economics of Standardization. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Keohane, Robert O., and Elinor Ostrom, eds. 1995. Local Commons and Global Interdependence: Heterogeneity and Cooperation in Two Domains. London: Sage Publications.*

Olowu, Dele, Kayode Soremekun, and Adebayo Williams, eds. 1995. Governance and Democratisation in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd.*

Schneider, Mark, and Paul Teske with Michael Mintrom. 1995. Public Entrepreneurs: Agents for Change in American Government. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.*

Wunsch, James, and Dele Olowu, eds. 1995. The Failure of the Centralized State: Institutions and Self-Governance in Africa. 2d ed. San Francisco, Calif.: ICS Press.*


Agrawal, Arun. 1995. "Population Pressure = Forest Degradation: An Oversimplistic Equation?" Unasylva 181(46):50-58.

Becker, C. Dustin, Abwoli Banana, and William Gombya-Ssembajjwe. 1995. "Early Detection of Tropical Forest Degradation: An IFRI Pilot Study in Uganda." Environmental Conservation 22(1) (Spring): 31-38.

Becker, C. Dustin, and Elinor Ostrom. 1995. "Human Ecology and Resource Sustainability: The Importance of Institutional Diversity." Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:113-33.

Blomquist, William, and Roger B. Parks. 1995. "Unigov: Local Government in Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana." In The Government of World Cities: The Future of the Metro Model, ed. L. J. Sharpe, 77-89. New York: John Wiley.*

Crawford, Sue E.S., and Elinor Ostrom. 1995. "A Grammar of Institutions." American Political Science Review 89(3) (Sept.): 582-600.

Eggertsson, Thráinn. 1995. "On the Economics of Economics." Kyklos 48:201-10.

Firmin-Sellers, Kathryn. 1995. "The Concentration of Authority: Constitutional Creation in the Gold Coast, 1950." Journal of Theoretical Politics 7(2) (April): 201-22.*

Firmin-Sellers, Kathryn. 1995. "The Politics of Property Rights." American Political Science Review 89(4) (Dec.): 867-81.

Gibson, Clark. 1995. "Killing Animals with Guns and Ballots: The Political Economy of Zambian Wildlife Policy, 1972-1982." Environmental History Review 19(1) (Spring): 49-75.

Gibson, Clark, and Stuart Marks. 1995. "Transforming Rural Hunters Into Conservationists: An Assessment of Community-Based Wildlife Management Programs in Africa." World Development 23(6):941-57.

Laury, Susan, James Walker, and Arlington Williams. 1995. "Anonymity and the Voluntary Provision of Public Goods." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 27:365-80.

McKean, Margaret, and Elinor Ostrom. 1995. "Common Property Regimes in the Forest: Just a Relic from the Past?" Unasylva 46(180) (January), 3-15.*

McLean, Iain, Alistair McMillan, and Burt L. Monroe. 1995. "Duncan Black and Lewis Carroll." Journal of -Theoretical Politics 792) (April): 107-23.*

Monroe, Burt. 1995. "Fully Proportional Representation." American Political Science Review 89(4) (Dec.): 925-40.

Ostrom, Elinor. 1995. "Designing Complexity to Govern Complexity." In Susan Hanna and Mohan Munasinghe, eds. Property Rights and the Environment: Social and Ecological Issues, 33-45. Washington, D.C.: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank.

Ostrom, Vincent. 1995. "The Constitutive Character of Norms in Human Societies." Hong Kong Public Administration 4(2) (Sept.): 161-79.

Ostrom, Vincent. 1995. "Where to Begin?" Publius 25(2) (Spring): 45-60.

Pradhan, Ajay S., and Peter J. Parks. 1995. "Environmental and Socioeconomic Linkages of Deforestation and Forest Land use Change in the Nepal Himalaya." In Susan Hanna and Mohan Munasinghe, eds. Property Rights in a Social and Ecological Context: Case Studies and Design Applications, 167-180. Washington, D.C.: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and The World Bank.

Robertson, Peter J., and Shui-Yan Tang. 1995. "The Role of Commitment in Collective Action: Comparing the Organizational Behavior and Rational Choice Perspectives." Public Administration Review 55(1) (Jan./Feb.): 67-80.*

Sproule-Jones, Mark. 1995. "Institutional Design for the Economy and the Environment: The Identification and Representation of Stakeholders." In Barry Sadler, Edward W. Manning, and John O. Dendy, eds. Balancing the Scale: Integrating Environmental and Economic Assessment, 85-100. A Compendium of Background Papers for the International Study of The Effectiveness of Environmental Assessment. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, International Association for Impact Assessment, Foundation for International Training, and Consulting and Auditing Canada.

* = publication listed in previous issue of -Polycentric Circles.

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